Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the leading
causes of neonatal death in developing countries like
Nepal. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence,
risk factors and immediate outcome of perinatal
asphyxia in newborns.

Materials and Methods:This was a prospective, cross
sectional, observational study conducted in Neonatal
Intensive Care Unit of Pokhara Academy of Health
Sciences during a period of six months including
60 neonates. All inborn neonates with diagnosis of
perinatal asphyxia with neonatal encephalopathy
were included in the study and Hypoxic Ischemic
Encephalopathy (HIE) staging was done. The
important maternal risk factors and fetal risk factors
and immediate outcome of neonates were recorded.
Results: The prevalence of perinatal asphyxia was
14.5 per 1000 live births; males 45% (27) and females
55% (33). Meconium-stained liquor was the most
common risk factor accounting for 36.7% of cases
followed by premature rupture of membrane (26.7%),
maternal fever (6.7%). HIE III had (100%) mortality
followed by HIE II (15.3%) and HIE I (5.1%)
respectively whereas HIE stage I had good recovery
(94.8%) followed by HIE II (84.6%).

Conclusion: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and
premature rupture of membrane are the two most
common risk factors. Early detection and timely
intervention of high-risk factors causing perinatal
asphyxia can decrease mortality as well as morbidity.


Keywords: Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy, Perinatal Asphyxia, Neonate